Entanglement of Identical Particles and Reference Phase Uncertainty.
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We have recently introduced a measure of the bipartite entanglement of identical particles, EP, based on the principle that entanglement should be accessible for use as a resource in quantum information processing. We show here that particle entanglement is limited by the lack of a reference phase shared by the two parties, and that the entanglement is constrained to reference-phase invariant subspaces. The super-additivity of EP results from the fact that this constraint is weaker for combined systems. A shared reference phase can only be established by transferring particles between the parties, that is, with additional nonlocal resources. We show how this nonlocal operation can increase the particle entanglement.
International Journal of Quantum Information
Electronic version of an article published in International Journal of Quantum Information, 1, 4, 2003, 427-441, http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0219749903000346Copyright World Scientific Publishing Company http://www.worldscinet.com/ijqi/