Mangrove rehabilitation: a review focusing on ecological and institutional issues
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Interest in mangrove rehabilitation has increased rapidly since 2003, as has awareness of the damaging effects of natural and anthropogenic pressures that contribute to mangrove loss, which is estimated at 1-2 % per annum. The major pressures are from urbanization and other development in all areas and forestry and fisheries especially where communities depend on mangroves for their livelihood. However rehabilitation success has been uncertain, reflecting gaps in integration between human and ecological components of the rehabilitation system. In particular there are government level issues of gaps and inconsistency in policy and failure in application. Some rehabilitation efforts have had limited success for several reasons including: having insufficient information, using inappropriate methods, not involving local communities, or not following all the steps in the processes that have been identified in the literature. A multi-disciplinary and integrated approach is needed to assist future planning and this needs capacity from a variety of areas in government, research and community. The review concludes with hope for a future where governments work with communities to develop policies and strategies for rehabilitating mangrove for resilience to changing environments
Wetlands Ecology and Management
Copyright 2014 Springer Netherlands. This is an electronic version of an article published in Wetlands Ecology and Management, December 2014, Volume 22, Issue 6, pp 587–604. Wetlands Ecology and Management is available online at: http://link.springer.com/ with the open URL of your article.