Development of students' creativity through technological projects: a design-based approach (in Russian)
Abstract This book presents the results of the international project titled Technology and Enterprise Education in Russia. It develops and advocates new methods of learning in Technology education that are based on student-centred pedagogy and active use of design projects in curriculum development. Theoretical analysis drawing on comparative methods of research highlighted differences and similarities in interpreting and using the concept of design in Russian and English-speaking traditions, and in how it is practiced by professional designers. Narrow interpretations of design within the Russian tradition are highlighted as a potential barrier for using a design-based project approach in technology education. This new approach for technology education that is based on design projects which were widely trailed through the experimental schools of: Nizhny Novgorod and its region; Moscow; St. Petersburg; Novgorod the Great; Kaliningrad; and other cities are presented in the book. The trail period lasted for five years and the approach was used in a range of different types of schools. These included a small rural and large city schools. In addition, the schools included primary, secondary and special schools as well as interschool training centres. The main finding identified through this experiment was an increase in student motivation, and as a result, an improvement in students’ work. Also, the satisfaction of teachers increased. In many schools students start choosing exams in technology at the end of their secondary school studies. The overall finding from surveys and interviews conducted across the experimental schools demonstrated that all students stressed a positive influence of projects on their personal development. Through technology education students continue to acquire knowledge and skills about how to transform materials, energy and information, in learning about technology. However, the introduction of a design-based project approach to technology education as the main teaching and learning method gives students an additional opportunity to research, create, solve problems in different ways, design products, and test and evaluate products in real life situations. Using the project method helps students to master many cognitive operations that are required for effective creative work. The book provides recommendations for technology educators about how to develop those skills in students. Together with some practical material, the whole range of pedagogical issues that underpin the project method are examined in the book. The book is aimed developing a theoretical basis for conceptualisation of the design-based project method in the technology education of students. In the introduction to the book, Professor Shishov, Head of the Department of Modelling and Development of the Educational System, from the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation stated: The book by Margarita Pavlova and James Pitt provides a clear perspective on what is happening in technology education, demonstrating that there is a growing understanding for applying a more humanistic/non-technocratic approach within technology education. The project approach is gradually developing and accumulating documented accounts of experiences which provide evidence contributing to a deepening of the theoretical and practical basis for the approach. The project approach in education is inseparable part of a number of measures for renovating and developing secondary education as a whole. This method constitutes one of the main component of educational policy for the future, that means the global education of each person and deep revitalisation of pedagogy on the basis of the project method. (p.12) Thus, the book includes general principles and issues related to methods of teaching, as well as practical recommendations to activate the cognitive learning processes of students during technology lessons.
PRE2009-Curriculum Theory and Development