A comprehensive evaluation of bladder cancer epidemiology and outcomes in Australia
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Objective To review bladder cancer statistics and management in Australia and identify gaps for future work here. Methods Evidence was reviewed from GLOBOCAN 2008v2.0, Pubmed, and conference presentations. We also use data from reports from Cancer Council Australia, State Cancer Councils, and Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Results The incidence and mortality rates of bladder cancer in Australia closely parallel those of other developed countries. Bladder cancer was the 8th most common cause of cancer in men, and the 17th most common cause of cancer in women. Bladder cancer was the 13th most common cause of cancer death in men, and the 17th most common cause of cancer death in women. We briefly review the evidence regarding causality, including nutritional, occupational, and environmental factors. We compare Australian incidence and mortality rates internationally, by state/territory, by socioeconomic strata, and by geographical regions. Importantly, we review evidence on the quality of bladder cancer management in Australia. Conclusions The geographical, regional, and socioeconomic differences in Australian bladder cancer statistics may be associated with different patterns of diagnosis and treatment. Implications The quality of bladder cancer surveillance and cystectomies in Australia requires improvement to conform to global standards and to improve decreasing survival rates.
International Urology and Nephrology
Medical and Health Sciences not elsewhere classified