An experimental study for wave-induced instability of pipelines: The breakout of pipelines
In this paper, a series of experiments have been conducted in a U-shaped oscillatory flow tunnel, which provides a more realistic simulation than the previous actuator loading methods. Based on the experimental data of pipe displacement with two different constraint conditions (freely laid pipelines and anti-rolling pipelines), three characteristic times in the process of pipeline losing stability are identified. The effects of sand size on the pipeline lateral stability are examined for freely laid pipelines. The empirical relationships between non-dimensional pipeline weight (G) and Froude number (Frb) are established for different constraint conditions, which will provide a guide for engineering practice.
Applied Ocean Research