Population Pharmacokinetics of Phenytoin in Critically Ill Children
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The objective was to study the population pharmacokinetics of bound and unbound phenytoin in critically ill children, including influences on the protein binding profile. A population pharmacokinetic approach was used to analyze paired protein-unbound and total phenytoin plasma concentrations (n?=?146 each) from 32 critically ill children (0.08-17 years of age) who were admitted to a pediatric hospital, primarily intensive care unit. The pharmacokinetics of unbound and bound phenytoin and the influence of possible influential covariates were modeled and evaluated using visual predictive checks and bootstrapping. The pharmacokinetics of protein-unbound phenytoin was described satisfactorily by a 1-compartment model with first-order absorption in conjunction with a linear partition coefficient parameter to describe the binding of phenytoin to albumin. The partitioning coefficient describing protein binding and distribution to bound phenytoin was estimated to be 8.22. Nonlinear elimination of unbound phenytoin was not supported in this patient group. Weight, allometrically scaled for clearance and volume of distribution for the unbound and bound compartments, and albumin concentration significantly influenced the partition coefficient for protein binding of phenytoin. The population model can be applied to estimate the fraction of unbound phenytoin in critically ill children given an individual's albumin concentration.
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics