Molecular biology of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the predominant histologic subtype of esophageal cancer and characterized by high mortality rate and geographic differences in incidence. With the advances in the field of molecular biology, our understanding of the pathogenesis, epidemiology and behavior of ESCC continues to evolve. The recent development includes researche in etiopathogenesis (viruses and cancer susceptibility genes), keratins, tumor related genes (oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, genes involved in metastasis and apoptosis genes), proliferation-related factors (nuclear proteins, flow cytometry/morphometry, argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region) and factors related to metastases (cell adhesion molecules and enzymes related to degradation of extracellular matrix). There are ranges of molecular techniques potentially available to complement the traditional approaches in the management of ESCC. On the other hand, critics are needed in the interpretation and translation of these research findings from laboratories to clinics. Further investigations, education and collaborations between the various scientific and clinical disciplines are important to successful application of these molecular findings aiming at improving management of patients with ESCC.
Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology