The cholesterol-dependent cytolysins pneumolysin and streptolysin O require binding to red blood cell glycans for hemolytic activity
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The cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) pneumolysin (Ply) is a key virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Membrane cholesterol is required for the cytolytic activity of this toxin, but it is not clear whether cholesterol is the only cellular receptor. Analysis of Ply binding to a glycan microarray revealed that Ply has lectin activity and binds glycans, including the Lewis histo- blood group antigens. Surface plasmon resonance analysis showed that Ply has the highest affinity for the sialyl LewisX (sLeX) structure, with a Kd of 1.88 ! 10!5 M. Ply hemolytic activity against human RBCs showed dose-dependent inhibition by sLeX. Flow cytometric analysis and Western blots showed that blocking binding of Ply to the sLeX glycolipid on RBCs prevents deposition of the toxin in the membrane. The lectin domain responsible for sLeX binding is in domain 4 of Ply, which contains candidate car- bohydrate-binding sites. Mutagenesis of these predicted carbohy- drate-binding residues of Ply resulted in a decrease in hemolytic activity and a reduced affinity for sLeX. This study reveals that this archetypal CDC requires interaction with the sLeX glycolipid cellu- lar receptor as an essential step before membrane insertion. A similar analysis conducted on streptolysin O from Streptococcus pyogenes revealed that this CDC also has glycan-binding proper- ties and that hemolytic activity against RBCs can be blocked with the glycan lacto-N-neotetraose by inhibiting binding to the cell surface. Together, these data support the emerging paradigm shift that pore-forming toxins, including CDCs, have cellular receptors other than cholesterol that define target cell tropism.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America