Ecology and Conservation of Mudminnow Species Worldwide
We review and summarize the ecology and conservation status of the group of fishes commonly known as "mudminnows" (formerly known as the family Umbridae but recently reclassified as Esocidae), consisting of only five species distributed on three continents. These small-bodied fish-residing in freshwater habitats and exhibiting limited mobility-often occur in isolated populations across landscapes and are subject to conservation threats common to highly endemic species in close contact with anthropogenic impacts, such as pollution, habitat alteration, and nonnative species introductions. Herein we summarize current knowledge of the distributions, phylogenetic relationships, ecology, and conservation status of each species of mudminnow, including nonnative occurrence and distribution. We also outline the primary conservation threats to particular species and make recommendations for future research to promote much needed knowledge and conservation attention.
Ecology not elsewhere classified