Raman and Fluorescence Spectroscopy of CeO2, Er2O3, Nd2O3, Tm2O3, Yb2O3, La2O3, and Tb4O7
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To better understand and ascertain the mechanisms of flotation reagent interaction with rare earth (RE) minerals, it is necessary to determine the physical and chemical properties of the constituent components. Seven rare earth oxides (CeO2, Er2O3, Nd2O3, Tm2O3, Yb2O3, La2O3, and Tb4O7) that cover the rare earth elements (REEs) from light to heavy REEs have been investigated using Raman spectroscopy. Multiple laser sources (wavelengths of 325 nm, 442 nm, 514 nm, and 632.8 nm) for the Raman shift ranges from100 cm-1 to 5000 cm-1 of these excitationswere used for each individual rare earth oxide. Raman shifts and fluorescence emission have been identified. Theoretical energy levels for Er,Nd, and Ybwere used for the interpretation of fluorescence emission. The experimental results showed good agreement with the theoretical calculation for Er2O3 and Nd2O3. Additional fluorescence emission was observedwith Yb2O3 thatdidnot fit the reportedenergy level diagram. Tb4O7 was observed undergoing laser induced changes during examination.
Journal of Spectroscopy
© 2015 Jianlan Cui and Gregory A. Hope. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Structural Chemistry and Spectroscopy