Dynamics of flavonoid consumption in the Australian population
Objective: To estimate flavonoid intake in the Australian population Design: Flavonoid consumption was estimated by analysing the 24 hr NNS95 and apparent consumption data using USDA flavonoid composition data on 145 reference foods. Subjects: The NNS95 assessed dietary intake in a random sample of the Australian population (n=13 858) Results: Apparent dietary flavonoid consumption was 339 mg/person/day, of which 80% were flavan-3-ols. Black tea was the major flavonoid source (predominantly flavan-3-ols) representing 70% of total intake. Hesperetin and naringenin were the next most highly consumed flavonoids, reflecting orange intake. The 24 hour-recall data analysis indicated an average adults intake (>18 years) of 454 mg/day (93% being flavan-3-ols). Apple was the highest quercetin source until age 16-18 years, after which onions became an increasingly important source. Variations in hesperetin consumption reflected orange intake. Apple, apricot and grapes were the major sources of epicatechin and catechin for children, but became less important as wine consumption increased in adulthood. Wine was the main source of Malvidin. Naringenin intake remained static as a percentage of total flavonoid intakes until age 19-24 years, corresponding to orange intake, then increased with age from 19-24 years, corresponding to grapefruit intake. Both apparent consumption and 24-recall data indicated that apigenin intake was markedly higher in Australia than reported in either USA or Denmark, due presumably to differences in consumption data for leaf and stalk vegetables. Conclusions: Tea is the predominant flavonoid source in the Australian diet. Flavonoid consumption profiles and flavonoid sources varied according to age. International comparisons of flavonoid intake are difficult because of in consistent methodologies and a lack of survey tools validated for specific and total flavonoid intakes.
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society: Abstracts of Original Communictions
Copyright 2005 Cambridge University Press : Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher : This journal is available online - use hypertext links.