Next-generation devices to diagnose residuum health of individuals suffering from limb loss: A narrative review of trends, opportunities, and challenges.

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Frossard, Laurent
Langton, Christian
Perevoshchikova, Nataliya
Feih, Stefanie
Powrie, Ross
Barrett, Rod
Lloyd, David
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Objectives There is a need for diagnostic devices that can assist prosthetic care providers to better assess and maintain residuum health of individuals suffering from neuromusculoskeletal dysfunctions associated with limb loss. This paper outlines the trends, opportunities, and challenges that will facilitate the development of next-generation diagnostic devices.

Design Narrative literature review.

Method Information about technologies suitable for integration into next-generation diagnostic devices was extracted from 41 references. We considered the invasiveness, comprehensiveness, and practicality of each technology subjectively.

Results This review highlighted a trend toward future diagnostic devices of neuromusculoskeletal dysfunctions of the residuum capable to support evidence-based patient-specific prosthetic care, patient empowerment, and the development of bionic solutions. This device should positively disrupt the organization healthcare by enabling cost-utility analyses (e.g., fee-for-device business models) and addressing healthcare gaps due to labor shortages. There are opportunities to develop wireless, wearable and noninvasive diagnostic devices integrating wireless biosensors to measure change in mechanical constraints and topography of residuum tissues during real-life conditions as well as computational modeling using medical imaging and finite element analysis (e.g., digital twin). Developing the next-generation diagnostic devices will require to overcome critical barriers associated with the design (e.g., gaps between technology readiness levels of essential parts), clinical roll-out (e.g., identification of primary users), and commercialization (e.g., limited interest from investors).

Conclusions We anticipate that next-generation diagnostic devices will contribute to prosthetic care innovations that will safely increase mobility, thereby improving the quality of life of the growing global population of individuals suffering from limb loss.

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Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport

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© The Author(s) 2023. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Sports Medicine Australia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Frossard, L; Langton, C; Perevoshchikova, N; Feih, S; Powrie, R; Barrett, R; Lloyd, D, Next-generation devices to diagnose residuum health of individuals suffering from limb loss: A narrative review of trends, opportunities, and challenges., Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 2023