Large-area phosphorene for stable carbon-based perovskite solar cells

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Myagmarsereejid, Purevlkham
Suragtkhuu, Selengesuren
Trinh, Quang Thang
Gould, Tim
Nguyen, Nam‐Trung
Bat-Erdene, Munkhjargal
Campbell, Eric
Hoang, Minh Tam
Chiu, Wei-Hsun
Li, Qin
Wang, Hongxia
Zhong, Yu Lin
Batmunkh, Munkhbayar
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Carbon-based perovskite solar cells (c-PSCs) have attracted increasing attention due to their numerous advantages including ease of fabrication, the potential of assembling flexible devices, low manufacturing costs as well as large-scale production. However, c-PSCs suffer from the limited hole extraction and high charge carrier recombination due to the inadequate interface contact between the carbon electrode and perovskite film. Herein, we report the fabrication of planar c-PSCs with high efficiency and excellent stability by employing electrochemically produced large-area phosphorene flakes as a hole-transporting layer (HTL). Large-area phosphorene shows well-aligned band energy levels with the perovskite, and thus led to the efficient hole extraction and the reduced hysteresis behaviour. Consequently, while exhibiting excellent stability under various harsh testing conditions, the devices with phosphorene HTL delivered a power conversion efficiency of over 15% with an open-circuit voltage of 1.082 V, which is the highest reported value for c-PSCs without traditional hole transporting materials to date.

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npj 2D Materials and Applications

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© The Author(s) 2024. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit

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Photovoltaic devices (solar cells)

Electronics, sensors and digital hardware

Materials engineering

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Myagmarsereejid, P; Suragtkhuu, S; Trinh, QT; Gould, T; Nguyen, N; Bat-Erdene, M; Campbell, E; Hoang, MT; Chiu, W-H; Li, Q; Wang, H; Zhong, YL; Batmunkh, M, Large-area phosphorene for stable carbon-based perovskite solar cells, npj 2D Materials and Applications, 2024, 8, pp. 38