Putting plant resistance traits on the map: a test of the idea that plants are better defended at lower latitudes

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Moles, Angela T
Wallis, Ian R
Foley, William J
Warton, David I
Stegen, James C
Bisigato, Alejandro J
Cella-Pizarro, Lucrecia
Clark, Connie J
Cohen, Philippe S
Cornwell, William K
Edwards, Will
Ejrnaes, Rasmus
Gonzales-Ojeda, Therany
Graae, Bente J
Hay, Gregory
Lumbwe, Fainess C
Magana-Rodriguez, Benjamin
Moore, Ben D
Peri, Pablo L
Poulsen, John R
Veldtman, Ruan
von Zeipel, Hugo
Andrew, Nigel R
Boulter, Sarah L
Borer, Elizabeth T
Fernandez Campon, Florencia
Coll, Moshe
Farji-Brener, Alejandro G
De Gabriel, Jane
Jurado, Enrique
Kyhn, Line A
Low, Bill
Mulder, Christa PH
Reardon-Smith, Kathryn
Rodriguez-Velazquez, Jorge
Seabloom, Eric W
Vesk, Peter A
van Cauter, An
Waldram, Matthew S
Zheng, Zheng
Blendinger, Pedro G
Enquist, Brian J
Facelli, Jose M
Knight, Tiffany
Majer, Jonathan D
Martinez-Ramos, Miguel
McQuillan, Peter
Prior, Lynda D
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Ian Woodward

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2011
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Abstract

It has long been believed that plant species from the tropics have higher levels of traits associated with resistance to herbivores than do species from higher latitudes. A meta‐analysis recently showed that the published literature does not support this theory. However, the idea has never been tested using data gathered with consistent methods from a wide range of latitudes.

We quantified the relationship between latitude and a broad range of chemical and physical traits across 301 species from 75 sites world‐wide.

Six putative resistance traits, including tannins, the concentration of lipids (an indicator of oils, waxes and resins), and leaf toughness were greater in high‐latitude species. Six traits, including cyanide production and the presence of spines, were unrelated to latitude. Only ash content (an indicator of inorganic substances such as calcium oxalates and phytoliths) and the properties of species with delayed greening were higher in the tropics.

Our results do not support the hypothesis that tropical plants have higher levels of resistance traits than do plants from higher latitudes. If anything, plants have higher resistance toward the poles. The greater resistance traits of high‐latitude species might be explained by the greater cost of losing a given amount of leaf tissue in low‐productivity environments.

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New Phytologist

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191

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3

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Biological sciences

Plant physiology

Agricultural, veterinary and food sciences

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