Systematic review and meta-analysis of the incidence of recurrence of spontaneous coronary artery dissection

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Mridha, Naim
Millhouse, James
Oldfield, Kieran
Adams, Cobi
Hughes, Ian
Singh, Kuljit
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AIM: Recurrence is a well-established complication of spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD). However, the exact incidence and correlates of recurrence are unknown. We, therefore, performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine and consolidate the evidence on the global incidence of SCAD recurrence. METHODS: A comprehensive search of the four major databases (EMBASE, OVID Medline, PubMed and Google Scholar) was performed from their inception to 17 January 2019. We included original research studies, recruiting ≥10 participants, with ≥12 months follow-up that reported data on recurrence in patients with SCAD. RESULTS: Out of 556 studies searched, 19 cohorts (1538 SCAD patients) were included in the analysis. There were 153 cases of de novo recurrence over a mean follow-up period of 31.2 months (95% confidence interval, 25-41 months). Type 1, 2 and 3 SCAD was noted in 33.2, 73.2 and 5.3%, respectively. The involved coronary artery was left anterior descending artery, left anterior descending artery, right coronary artery, left circumflex artery and multivessel coronary artery disease, respectively, in 3.5, 53.4, 19.8, 20.4 and 12.6% of cases. The overall SCAD de novo recurrence was 7% (ES 0.07, 95% confidence interval, 0.04-0.10, I2 = 65.3%). On meta-regression, we found discharge medications at index admission, including β-blockers, ACE inhibitors, statins, as well as baseline cardiac risk factors, did not correlate with recurrence. CONCLUSION: SCAD recurrence is common, occurring in 7% of patients over medium-term follow up. No specific medications at discharge were found to reduce recurrence. Further long-term and prospective data are required.

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Coronary Artery Disease

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Mridha, N; Millhouse, J; Oldfield, K; Adams, C; Hughes, I; Singh, K, Systematic review and meta-analysis of the incidence of recurrence of spontaneous coronary artery dissection, Coronary Artery Disease, 2021