Vertical Jump Testing Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

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Dutaillis, Benjamin
Diamond, Laura E
Lazarczuk, Stephanie L
Timmins, Ryan G
Bourne, Matthew N
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Introduction Recently, there has been a call for vertical jump testing via force-plate analysis to be included in the assessment of individuals following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) and as part of return to play criteria. However, a synthesis of current literature is needed to help guide clinicians on what tests to perform, which force-plate metrics to assess and how these may change over the time-course of rehabilitation.

Methods Four online databases were searched from inception to July 2022. The Downs and Black checklist was used to assess study quality. Multilevel meta-analyses and meta-regressions were undertaken in conjunction with a best evidence synthesis.

Results Forty-two articles were included, capturing 2375 participants with a history of ACLR. Reconstructed limbs displayed 1) lower peak eccentric forces, concentric forces, landing forces, and lower eccentric and concentric impulses (SMD = -1.84 to -0.46) than uninjured contralateral limbs during bilateral countermovement jumps (CMJ) and drop vertical jumps (DVJ); 2) lower jump heights and reactive strength indices (RSI), and longer contact times than uninjured contralateral limbs during unilateral CMJ and DVJ (SMD = -0.86 to 0.26); and 3) lower jump heights, RSI and longer contact times during bilateral and unilateral CMJ, and unilateral DVJ, than uninjured controls (SMD = -1.19 to 1.08). Meta-regression revealed that time post-surgery was a significant moderator (P < 0.05) for, 1) bilateral CMJ height, peak concentric force and peak landing force; 2) between-limb differences in unilateral CMJ height; and 3) differences in unilateral DVJ height, RSI and contact time between reconstructed limbs and healthy controls with no history of injury.

Conclusions Individuals with a history of ACLR display chronic deficits in vertical jumping performance during a range of bilateral and unilateral tasks, which may have implications for return to play criteria and the design of interventions targeted at restoring long-term deficits in explosive lower limb strength following ACLR.

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Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
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Dutaillis, B; Diamond, LE; Lazarczuk, SL; Timmins, RG; Bourne, MN, Vertical Jump Testing Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis, Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2023