Experimental Animal Models of Traumatic Coagulopathy: A Systematic Review

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van Zyl, Natasha
Reade, Michael C
Fraser, John F
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2015
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Background: Perturbations in coagulation function are common following trauma and are associated with poor clinical outcomes. Traditionally considered an iatrogenic process, it is now recognized that an acute coagulation dysfunction develops prior to medical intervention. The mechanisms underlying the development of this acute traumatic coagulopathy remain poorly understood. Preclinical animal research is a necessary adjunct to improve mechanistic understanding and management of this condition. This review aims to identify and evaluate existing animal models of traumatic coagulopathy for clinical relevance. Methods: A structured search of MEDLINE/PubMed was performed in September 2014 in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Results: A total of 62 relevant publications describing 27 distinct models of traumatic coagulopathy were identified. Porcine models predominated, and hemodilution in isolation or in combination with hypothermia and/or acidosis was the principal mechanism for inducing coagulopathy. Acute coagulation changes in response to tissue injury and hemorrhage were evident in five publications, and pathophysiological evaluation of postulated mechanisms was performed in three studies. Conclusions: There are few clinically relevant animal models that reflect the contemporary understanding of traumatic coagulopathy. This relative deficiency highlights the need for further development of valid and reproducible animal models of trauma. Well-designed models will facilitate improved mechanistic understanding and development of targeted treatment strategies for traumatic coagulopathy.

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Shock
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44
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1
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Clinical sciences
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Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Critical Care Medicine
Hematology
Surgery
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van Zyl, N; Reade, MC; Fraser, JF, Experimental Animal Models of Traumatic Coagulopathy: A Systematic Review, Shock, 2015, 44 (1), pp. 16-24
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