PSMA-targeted radiotheranostics in modern nuclear medicine: then, now, and what of the future?

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Sallam, M
Nguyen, NT
Sainsbury, F
Kimizuka, N
Muyldermans, S
Benešová-Schäfer, M
Griffith University Author(s)
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In 1853, the perception of prostate cancer (PCa) as a rare ailment prevailed, was described by the eminent Londoner surgeon John Adams. Rapidly forward to 2018, the landscape dramatically altered. Currently, men face a one-in-nine lifetime risk of PCa, accentuated by improved diagnostic methods and an ageing population. With more than three million men in the United States alone grappling with this disease, the overall risk of succumbing to stands at one in 39. The intricate clinical and biological diversity of PCa poses serious challenges in terms of imaging, ongoing monitoring, and disease management. In the field of theranostics, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches that harmoniously merge targeted imaging with treatments are integrated. A pivotal player in this arena is radiotheranostics, employing radionuclides for both imaging and therapy, with prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) at the forefront. Clinical milestones have been reached, including FDA- and/or EMA-approved PSMA-targeted radiodiagnostic agents, such as [18F]DCFPyL (PYLARIFY®, Lantheus Holdings), [18F]rhPSMA-7.3 (POSLUMA®, Blue Earth Diagnostics) and [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11 (Locametz®, Novartis/ ILLUCCIX®, Telix Pharmaceuticals), as well as PSMA-targeted radiotherapeutic agents, such as [177Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 (Pluvicto®, Novartis). Concurrently, ligand-drug and immune therapies designed to target PSMA are being advanced through rigorous preclinical research and clinical trials. This review delves into the annals of PSMA-targeted radiotheranostics, exploring its historical evolution as a signature molecule in PCa management. We scrutinise its clinical ramifications, acknowledge its limitations, and peer into the avenues that need further exploration. In the crucible of scientific inquiry, we aim to illuminate the path toward a future where the enigma of PCa is deciphered and where its menace is met with precise and effective countermeasures. In the following sections, we discuss the intriguing terrain of PCa radiotheranostics through the lens of PSMA, with the fervent hope of advancing our understanding and enhancing clinical practice.

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© The author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( See for full terms and conditions.

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Sallam, M; Nguyen, NT; Sainsbury, F; Kimizuka, N; Muyldermans, S; Benešová-Schäfer, M, PSMA-targeted radiotheranostics in modern nuclear medicine: then, now, and what of the future?, Theranostics, 2024, 14 (8), pp. 3043-3079