Exposure to fine particulate matter constituents and cognitive function performance, potential mediation by sleep quality: A multicenter study among Chinese adults aged 40–89 years

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Pan, Rubing
Zhang, Yi
Xu, Zhiwei
Yi, Weizhuo
Zhao, Feng
Song, Jian
Sun, Qinghua
Du, Peng
Fang, Jianlong
Cheng, Jian
Liu, Yingchun
Chen, Chen
Lu, Yifu
Li, Tiantian
Su, Hong
et al.
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2022
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http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Abstract

Although exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been associated with cognitive decline, little is known about which PM2.5 constituents are more harmful. Recent study on the association between PM2.5 and sleep quality prompted us to propose that sleep quality may mediate the adverse effects of PM2.5 components on cognitive decline. Understanding the association between PM2.5 constituents and cognitive function, as well as the mediating role of sleep quality provides a future intervention target for improving cognitive function. Using data involving 1834 participants from a multicenter cross-sectional study in nine cities of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region in China, we undertook multivariable linear regression analyses to quantify the association of annual moving-average PM2.5 and its chemical constituents with cognitive function and to assess the modifying role of exposure characteristic in this association. Besides, we examined the extent to which this association of PM2.5 constituents with cognitive function was mediated via sleep quality by a mediation analysis. We observed significantly negative associations between an increase of one interquartile range increase in PM2.5 [−0.876 (95 % CI: −1.205, −0.548)], organic carbon [−0.481 (95 % CI: −0.744, −0.219)], potassium [−0.344 (95 % CI: −0.530, −0.157)], iron [−0.468 (95 % CI: −0.646, −0.291)], and ammonium ion [−0.125 (95 % CI: −0.197, −0.052)] and cognitive decline. However, we didn't find any individual components more harmful than PM2.5. Poor sleep quality partially mediated the estimated associations, which were explained ranging from 2.28 % to 11.99 %. Stratification analyses showed that people living in areas with lower greenspace were more susceptible to specific PM2.5 components. Our study suggests that the adverse effect of suffering from PM2.5 components is more pronounced among individuals with poor sleep quality, amplifying environmental inequalities in health. Besides reducing environmental pollution, improving sleep quality may be another measure worth considering to improve cognition if our research is confirmed in the future.

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Environment International
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© 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
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Pollution and contamination
Psychology
Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Environmental Sciences
Environmental Sciences & Ecology
Mediation analysis
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Pan, R; Zhang, Y; Xu, Z; Yi, W; Zhao, F; Song, J; Sun, Q; Du, P; Fang, J; Cheng, J; Liu, Y; Chen, C; Lu, Y; Li, T; Su, H; Shi, X, Exposure to fine particulate matter constituents and cognitive function performance, potential mediation by sleep quality: A multicenter study among Chinese adults aged 40–89 years, Environment International, 2022, 170, pp. 107566
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