An investigation of glucocorticoid and serotonergic systems in human placenta

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Rose'Meyer, Roselyn
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Naug, Helen
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2018-09
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Abstract

Engagement is a multifaceted concept that has been a growing concern for researchers, particularly in mathematics education (Attard, 2012; Chan, Baker, Slee, & Williamson, 2015). In recent years, mathematics education has been seen as boring and dull, and many students have disengaged from a relatively early age in learning and participating in mathematics (Grootenboer & Marshman, 2016). Therefore, this is an important issue, as low levels of engagement among students can put them at risk of decreased participation and, ultimately, low levels of academic achievement (Fredrick et al, 2004). The study reported here was conceptualised using a theoretical framework that included three dimensions of engagement; emotional, behavioural, and cognitive, and these were used to structure the data collection and analysis vis-à-vis learning mathematics outdoors. This comparative case study involved 34 students from two year 6 classes at a Queensland state primary school. The findings indicated that the students were engaged in their mathematics learning in the outdoor context. However, there was no compelling evidence that suggested the outdoor environment was any more emotionally, behaviourally, or cognitively engaging than the indoor context. There were, however, hints that emotional engagement was facilitated in the outdoor environment as students enjoyed the novelty of it, being able to ‘move around’, and also working in pairs/groups. Nonetheless, this requires further investigation in future research. What was clear from this study was that there were benefits for student engagement when learning mathematics outdoors and that participating in a variety of learning experiences can be seen as valuable for both students and teachers.

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Thesis (PhD Doctorate)
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Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
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School of Medical Science
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The author owns the copyright in this thesis, unless stated otherwise.
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Subject
Mathematics
Engagement
Outdoor learning
Emotional engagement
Affective engagement
Behavioural engagement
Cognitive engagement
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