The Effects of Cold Water Immersion and Active Recovery on Molecular Factors That Regulate Growth and Remodeling of Skeletal Muscle After Resistance Exercise

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Peake, JM
Markworth, JF
Cumming, KT
Aas, SN
Roberts, LA
Raastad, T
Cameron-Smith, D
Figueiredo, VC
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Regular postexercise cooling attenuates muscle hypertrophy, yet its effects on the key molecular factors that regulate muscle growth and remodeling are not well characterized. In the present study, nine men completed two sessions of single-leg resistance exercise on separate days. On 1 day, they sat in cold water (10°C) up to their waist for 10 min after exercise. On the other day, they exercised at a low intensity for 10 min after exercise. Muscle biopsies were collected from the exercised leg before, 2, 24, and 48 h after exercise in both trials. These muscle samples were analyzed to evaluate changes in genes and proteins involved in muscle growth and remodeling. Muscle-specific RING finger 1 mRNA increased at 2 h after both trials (P < 0.05), while insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 Ec, IGF-1 receptor, growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 45, collagen type I alpha chain A, collagen type III alpha chain 1, laminin and tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 1 mRNA increased 24−48 h after both trials (P < 0.05). By contrast, atrogin-1 mRNA decreased at all time points after both trials (P < 0.05). Protein expression of tenascin C increased 2 h after the active recovery trial (P < 0.05), whereas FoxO3a protein expression decreased after both trials (P < 0.05). Myostatin mRNA and ubiquitin protein expression did not change after either trial. These responses were not significantly different between the trials. The present findings suggest that regular cold water immersion attenuates muscle hypertrophy independently of changes in factors that regulate myogenesis, proteolysis and extracellular matrix remodeling in muscle after exercise.

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Frontiers in Physiology

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© 2020 Peake, Markworth, Cumming, Aas, Roberts, Raastad, Cameron-Smith and Figueiredo. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

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extracellular matrix

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Peake, JM; Markworth, JF; Cumming, KT; Aas, SN; Roberts, LA; Raastad, T; Cameron-Smith, D; Figueiredo, VC, The Effects of Cold Water Immersion and Active Recovery on Molecular Factors That Regulate Growth and Remodeling of Skeletal Muscle After Resistance Exercise, Frontiers in Physiology, 2020, 11, pp. 737