Cold atmospheric plasma coupled with air abrasion in liquid medium for the treatment of peri-implantitis model grown with a complex human biofilm: an in vitro study

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Hui, WL
Perrotti, V
Piattelli, A
Ostrikov, K
Fang, Z
Quaranta, A
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Objective: Treatment of implants with peri-implantitis is often unsuccessful due to residual microbial biofilm hindering re-osseointegration. The aim of this study was to treat biofilm-grown titanium (Ti) implants with different modalities involving air abrasion (AA) and cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) to compare the effectiveness in surface decontamination and the alteration/preservation of surface topography. Materials and methods: Saliva collected from a peri-implantitis patient was used to in vitro develop human biofilm over 35 implants with moderately rough surface. The implants were then mounted onto standardized acrylic blocks simulating peri-implantitis defects and treated with AA (erythritol powder), CAP in a liquid medium, or a combination (COM) of both modalities. The remaining biofilm was measured by crystal violet (CV). Surface features and roughness before and after treatment were assessed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison test. Results: In the present peri-implantitis model, the human complex biofilm growth was successful as indicated by the statistical significance between the negative and positive controls. All the treatment groups resulted in a remarkable implant surface decontamination, with values very close to the negative control for AA and COM. Indeed, statistically significant differences in the comparison between the positive control vs. all the treatment groups were found. SEM analysis showed no post-treatment alterations on the implant surface in all the groups. Conclusions: Decontamination with AA delivering erythritol with or without CAP in liquid medium demonstrated compelling efficacy in the removal of biofilm from implants. All the tested treatments did not cause qualitative alterations to the Ti surface features. No specific effects of the CAP were observed, although further studies are necessary to assess its potential as monotherapy with different settings or in combination with other decontamination procedures. Clinical relevance: CAP is a promising option in the treatment of peri-implantitis because it has potential to improve the elimination of bacterial plaque from implant surfaces, in inaccessible pockets or during open-flap debridement, and should stimulate the process of the re-osseointegration of affected dental implants by not altering surface features and roughness.

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Clinical Oral Investigations

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© The Author(s) 2021. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.

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Hui, WL; Perrotti, V; Piattelli, A; Ostrikov, K; Fang, Z; Quaranta, A, Cold atmospheric plasma coupled with air abrasion in liquid medium for the treatment of peri-implantitis model grown with a complex human biofilm: an in vitro study, Clinical Oral Investigations, 2021