Entanglement of Identical Particles and Reference Phase Uncertainty.

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Vaccaro, John A
Anselmi, Fabio
Wiseman, Howard M
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2003
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Abstract

We have recently introduced a measure of the bipartite entanglement of identical particles, EP, based on the principle that entanglement should be accessible for use as a resource in quantum information processing. We show here that particle entanglement is limited by the lack of a reference phase shared by the two parties, and that the entanglement is constrained to reference-phase invariant subspaces. The super-additivity of EP results from the fact that this constraint is weaker for combined systems. A shared reference phase can only be established by transferring particles between the parties, that is, with additional nonlocal resources. We show how this nonlocal operation can increase the particle entanglement.

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International Journal of Quantum Information

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1

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4

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Electronic version of an article published in International Journal of Quantum Information, 1, 4, 2003, 427-441, http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0219749903000346Copyright World Scientific Publishing Company http://www.worldscinet.com/ijqi/

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Mathematical sciences

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Information and computing sciences

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