Influence of different types of whitening tooth pastes on the tooth color, enamel surface roughness and enamel morphology of human teeth

Thumbnail Image
File version

Version of Record (VoR)

Shamel, Mohamed
Al-Ankily, Mahmoud M
Bakr, Mahmoud M
Griffith University Author(s)
Primary Supervisor
Other Supervisors
File type(s)

Background: Tooth whitening usually includes the direct use of gels containing carbamide or hydrogen peroxide on the tooth enamel surface through a wide variety of products formulas. A generally new advancement in whitening of teeth uses the significant importance of the tooth color shift from yellow to blue in delivering a general enhancement in the observation of tooth whiteness. The aim of the current work was to measure the tooth whitening effects, surface roughness and enamel morphology of six different types of blue covarine-containing and blue covarine-free toothpastes using in vitro models. Methods: A total of 70 sound extracted human premolars were randomly and equally divided into seven groups, and each subjected to tooth brushing using different toothpastes. Tooth color and enamel surface roughness were measured before and after the brushing procedure using a white light interferometer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to assess tooth surface after the procedure. Results: Toothpaste containing blue covarine resulted in the greatest improvement in tooth color amongst all groups as well as a statistically significant color difference when compared to blue covarine-free toothpaste. Furthermore, blue covarine-containing toothpaste resulted in fewer morphological changes to the enamel surface. This was confirmed with SEM images that showed smooth enamel surfaces with fine scratches.
Conclusions: The results from the present study show that blue covarine containing toothpastes are reliable, effective in tooth whitening and produce less surface abrasion when compared to blue covarine-free toothpastes.

Journal Title


Conference Title
Book Title


Thesis Type
Degree Program
Publisher link
Patent number
Grant identifier(s)
Rights Statement
Rights Statement

© 2019 Shamel M et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Item Access Status
Access the data
Related item(s)

Biochemistry and cell biology

Clinical sciences


Oncology and carcinogenesis

Tooth whitening

enamel surface roughness

tooth color

Blue covarine


Persistent link to this record

Shamel, M; Al-Ankily, MM; Bakr, MM, Influence of different types of whitening tooth pastes on the tooth color, enamel surface roughness and enamel morphology of human teeth., F1000Research, 2019, 8, pp. 1764: 1-1764: 16