Osteoprotective Effects of Estrogen in the Maxillary Bone Depend on ERα

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Macari, S
Ajay Sharma, L
Wyatt, A
Knowles, P
Szawka, RE
Garlet, GP
Grattan, DR
Dias, GJ
Silva, TA
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2016
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Abstract

Estrogen deficiency results in disruption of maxillary alveolar bone microarchitecture. Most of the actions of estrogen in long bones occur via estrogen receptor α (ERα). However, the function of ERα in the maxillary bone has not been defined. We aimed to investigate the role and underlying mechanisms of ERα in the physiological and mechanically induced alveolar bone remodeling in female and male mice. Wild-type (WT) and ERα(-/-) (ERKOα) mice were subjected to mechanically stimulated bone remodeling by inducing orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). The maxillary bone was analyzed using histomorphometric analysis, micro-computed tomography, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Bone marrow cells (BMCs) from WT and ERKOα mice were tested for their capacity to differentiate into osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Both male and female ERKOα mice exhibited marked reduction of alveolar bone mass and increased OTM. This response was associated with an increased number of osteoclasts and reduced number of apoptotic cells and osteoblasts in the periodontium and alveolar bone. Consistently, ERKOα mice exhibited lower levels of calcium in bone and increased expression of IL-33 (interleukin-33), TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor α), and IL-1β (interleukin-1β) and decreased expression of dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein and alkaline phosphatase in periodontal tissues. Moreover, the differentiation of osteoclasts and osteoblasts in vitro was significantly higher in BMCs obtained from ERKOα. ERα is required to maintain the microarchitecture of maxillary alveolar bone. This process is linked to bone cell differentiation and apoptosis, as well as local production of inflammatory molecules such as IL-33, TNF-α, and IL-1β.

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Journal of Dental Research

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95

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6

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Dentistry

alveolar bone loss

bone remodeling

estrogen receptor alpha

interleukin-33

maxilla

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Macari, S; Ajay Sharma, L; Wyatt, A; Knowles, P; Szawka, RE; Garlet, GP; Grattan, DR; Dias, GJ; Silva, TA, Osteoprotective Effects of Estrogen in the Maxillary Bone Depend on ERα, Journal of Dental Research, 2016, 95 (6), pp. 689-696

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