Analysis of Security Issues and Countermeasures for the Industrial Internet of Things

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Pal, Shantanu
Jadidi, Zahra
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Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) can be seen as an extension of the Internet of Things (IoT) services and applications to industry with the inclusion of Industry 4.0 that provides automation, reliability, and control in production and manufacturing. IIoT has tremendous potential to accelerate industry automation in many areas, including transportation, manufacturing, automobile, marketing, to name a few places. When the benefits of IIoT are visible, the development of large-scale IIoT systems faces various security challenges resulting in many large-scale cyber-attacks, including fraudulent transactions or damage to critical infrastructure. Moreover, a large number of connected devices over the Internet and resource limitations of the devices (e.g., battery, memory, and processing capability) further pose challenges to the system. The IIoT inherits the insecurities of the traditional communication and networking technologies; however, the IIoT requires further effort to customize the available security solutions with more focus on critical industrial control systems. Several proposals discuss the issue of security, privacy, and trust in IIoT systems, but comprehensive literature considering the several aspects (e.g., users, devices, applications, cascading services, or the emergence of resources) of an IIoT system is missing in the present state of the art IIoT research. In other words, the need for considering a vision for securing an IIoT system with broader security analysis and its potential countermeasures is missing in recent times. To address this issue, in this paper, we provide a comparative analysis of the available security issues present in an IIoT system. We identify a list of security issues comprising logical, technological, and architectural points of view and consider the different IIoT security requirements. We also discuss the available IIoT architectures to examine these security concerns in a systematic way. We show how the functioning of different layers of an IIoT architecture is affected by various security issues and report a list of potential countermeasures against them. This study also presents a list of future research directions towards the development of a large-scale, secure, and trustworthy IIoT system. The study helps understand the various security issues by indicating various threats and attacks present in an IIoT system.

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© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// 4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Pal, S; Jadidi, Z, Analysis of Security Issues and Countermeasures for the Industrial Internet of Things, Applied Sciences, 2021, 11 (20), pp. 9393