Hip Contact Forces during Sprinting in Femoroacetabular Impingement Syndrome

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Gonçalves, Basílio AM
Saxby, David J
Meinders, Evy
Barrett, Rod S
Diamond, Laura E
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PURPOSE: Sprinting often provokes hip pain in individuals with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS). Asphericity of the femoral head-neck junction (cam morphology) characteristic of FAIS can increase risk of anterior-superior acetabular cartilage damage. This study aimed to: 1) compare hip contact forces (magnitude and direction) during sprinting between individuals with FAIS, asymptomatic cam morphology (CAM), and controls without cam morphology, and 2) identify the phases of sprinting with high levels of anteriorly directed hip contact forces. METHODS: Forty-six recreationally active individuals with comparable levels of physical activity were divided into three groups (FAIS = 14; CAM = 15; control = 17) based on their history of hip/groin pain, results of a clinical impingement test, and presence of cam morphology (alpha angle>55°). Three-dimensional marker trajectories, ground reaction forces, and electromyograms (EMG) from 12 lower-limb muscles were recorded during 10 m overground sprinting trials. A linearly scaled EMG-informed neuromusculoskeletal model was used to calculate hip contact force magnitude (resultant, anterior-posterior, inferior-superior, medio-lateral) and angle (sagittal and frontal planes). Between-group comparisons were made using 2-sample t-tests via statistical parametric mapping (P < 0.05). RESULTS: No significant differences in magnitude or direction of hip contact forces were observed between FAIS and CAM or between FAIS and control groups during any phase of the sprint cycle. The highest anteriorly directed hip contact forces were observed during the initial swing phase of the sprint cycle. CONCLUSIONS: Hip contact forces during sprinting do not differentiate recreationally active individuals with FAIS from asymptomatic individuals with and without cam morphology. Hip loading during early swing, where peak anterior loading occurs, may be a potential mechanism for cartilage damage during sprinting related sports in individuals with FAIS and/or asymptomatic cam morphology.

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Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise

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Clinical sciences

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Sports science and exercise

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Gonçalves, BAM; Saxby, DJ; Meinders, E; Barrett, RS; Diamond, LE, Hip Contact Forces during Sprinting in Femoroacetabular Impingement Syndrome, Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2023