Liquid Dosage Forms Extemporaneously Prepared from Commercially Available Products – Considering New Evidence on Stability

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Haywood, Alison
Glass, Beverley D
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Although the world's population is ageing and as a result of this an increasing number of patients are experiencing difficulty in swallowing, there remains a lack of commercially available oral liquids for both these older and paediatric patients. This presents a problem to health care professionals, especially the pharmacist in practice, who is often required to provide a solution for these patients by preparing oral liquids extemporaneously from commercially available products. Preparation of these oral liquids is challenging, both due to the lack of pharmacopoeial and stability-indicating formulae and the fact that their stability is not only determined by the active pharmaceutical ingredient, but also the ability of excipients from the commercial product to interact with each other and the active pharmaceutical ingredient. This increases the complexity of the stability considerations to be taken into account within these oral liquids, highlighting the number of parameters to be considered in the extemporaneous preparation of oral liquids. This paper presents new evidence on the stability of 42 oral liquids prepared from commercially available products, reported on in the literature since the previous review published in 2006. However, unlike the previous review where the stability concerns in 7.2% of the extemporaneously prepared oral liquids were mainly due to interaction between the active pharmaceutical ingredients and the excipients in the commercial product, most of these stability considerations have been recognised and this has resulted in the authors proposing solutions to these problems prior to the extemporaneous preparation of the oral liquid. As such this paper also focuses on the increased level of research that has been undertaken to solve previous issues related to stability, especially in terms of the use of commercial products, which is common practice in the extemporaneous preparation of oral liquids.

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Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences

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© The Author(s) 2013. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0) License ( which permits unrestricted, distribution and reproduction in any medium, providing that the work is properly cited. If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under a licence identical to this one.

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Pharmacology and pharmaceutical sciences

Pharmaceutical sciences

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