The inter-relationship of diversity principles for the enhanced participation of older people in their care: a qualitative study

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Ogrin, Rajna
Meyer, Claudia
Appannah, Arti
McMillan, Sally
Browning, Colette
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BACKGROUND: The health and aged care workforce must understand and support the diverse needs of older people to enhance their care experience. We previously identified five principles of diversity training for this workforce: awareness of unconscious bias and prejudice; promotion of inclusion; access and equity; appropriate engagement; and intersectionality. This study aims to explore how these principles are considered from the perspectives of older Australians. METHODS: Older people (≥65 years) receiving home care and nursing services based in Victoria, Australia were invited to participate in a home-based semi-structured interview about their experience of, or with, diversity. Interviews were thematically analysed using a priori categories based on our previous work on principles of diversity training, and themes were interpreted and expanded upon based on the participants' experiences and understanding of diversity concepts and their care needs. RESULTS: Fifteen older people (seven female, eight male), mean age 76 years (range 71-85 years), were interviewed. Five themes were drawn from the data. It was found that human connection through building (1) trust and rapport was highly valued as an approach by older people, crucial as a first step to understanding what is important to the older person. Identifying with (2) intersectionality, that is, the different intersecting aspects of who they are and their experiences was understood by the participants as an important framework to meet their needs. The participants were aware of (3) unconscious bias and prejudice by health professionals and its impact on their care. Participants also noted that (4) promotion of inclusion through language was important to for a positive relationship with the healthcare worker. The participants understood that to facilitate human connection, these four principles of human interaction were critical, underpinned by (5) access and equity of the system. A model articulating these relationships was developed. CONCLUSION: Health and aged care training should incorporate the five diversity principles to support older people to participate in their own care.

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International Journal for Equity in Health

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© The Author(s). 2020 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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Ogrin, R; Meyer, C; Appannah, A; McMillan, S; Browning, C, The inter-relationship of diversity principles for the enhanced participation of older people in their care: a qualitative study, International Journal for Equity in Health, 2020, 19 (1)