Analysis of immunological nonresponsiveness to the 19-kilodalton fragment of merozoite surface protein 1 of Plasmodium yoelii: Rescue by chemical conjugation to diphtheria toxoid (DT) and enhancement of immunogenicity by prior DT vaccination

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Stanisic, Danielle I.
Martin, Laura B.
Liu, Xue Q.
Jackson, David
Cooper, Juan
Good, Michael F.
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2003
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Abstract

The Plasmodium merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) is a leading vaccine candidate for protecting against the blood stage of malaria. Previous studies have shown that the 19-kDa carboxyl terminus of this protein is able to induce protective immunity in some monkey and mouse strains. We show that immunization with the recombinant Plasmodium yoelii 19-kDa fragment of MSP1 (MSP1(19)) expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yMSP1(19)) can induce protective antibodies in several inbred mouse strains and one outbred mouse strain. However, mice expressing the H-2(s) major histocompatibility complex haplotype are unable to generate yMSP1(19)-specific antibodies. While synthetic peptides derived from MSP1(19) are immunogenic in B10.S mice, they cannot function as helper epitopes, and immunization with yMSP1(19) does not induce T cells that recognize the recombinant protein or synthetic peptides corresponding to its sequence. Nonresponsiveness could be overcome by using chemical linkers to conjugate yMSP1(19) to diphtheria toxoid (DT), resulting in immunogens capable of inducing protective yMSP1(19)-specific antibodies in both MSP1(19)-responsive and otherwise nonresponsive mouse strains. The ability of sera from mice immunized with the conjugate to inhibit binding of a protective monoclonal antibody (MAb 302) to yMSP1(19) correlated strongly with a delay in the prepatent period. Chemical conjugation of yMSP1(19) to DT may be a preferred method to enhance immunogenicity, as carrier priming experiments demonstrated that an existing immune response to DT enhanced a subsequent antibody response to yMSP1(19) after vaccination with yMSP1(19)-DT. These results have important implications for the development of a malaria vaccine to protect a population with diverse HLAs.

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Infection and Immunity

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71

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10

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Biological sciences

Agricultural, veterinary and food sciences

Biomedical and clinical sciences

Microbiology

Immunology

Medical microbiology

Science & Technology

Life Sciences & Biomedicine

Immunology

Infectious Diseases

CARBOXYL-TERMINAL FRAGMENT

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Stanisic, DI; Martin, LB; Liu, XQ; Jackson, D; Cooper, J; Good, MF, Analysis of immunological nonresponsiveness to the 19-kilodalton fragment of merozoite surface protein 1 of Plasmodium yoelii: Rescue by chemical conjugation to diphtheria toxoid (DT) and enhancement of immunogenicity by prior DT vaccination, Infection and Immunity, 2003, 71 (10), pp. 5700-5713

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