Sex-specific differences in lysine, 3-hydroxybutyric acid and acetic acid in offspring exposed to maternal and postnatal high linoleic acid diet, independent of diet

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Shrestha, N
Melvin, SD
McKeating, DR
Holland, OJ
Cuffe, JSM
Perkins, AV
McAinch, AJ
Hryciw, DH
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2021
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Background: Linoleic acid (LA) is an essential polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) that is required for foetal growth and development. Excess intake of LA can be detrimental for metabolic health due to its pro-inflammatory properties; however, the effect of a diet high in LA on offspring metabolites is unknown. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of maternal or postnatal high linoleic acid (HLA) diet on plasma metabolites in adult offspring. Methods: Female Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were fed with either low LA (LLA) or HLA diet for 10 weeks prior to conception and during gestation/lactation. Offspring were weaned at postnatal day 25 (PN25), treated with either LLA or HLA diets and sacrificed at PN180. Metabolite analysis was performed in plasma samples using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Results: Maternal and postnatal HLA diet did not alter plasma metabolites in male and female adult offspring. There was no specific clustering among different treatment groups as demonstrated by principal component analysis. Interestingly, there was clustering among male and female offspring independent of maternal and postnatal dietary intervention. Lysine was higher in female offspring, while 3-hydroxybutyric acid and acetic acid were significantly higher in male offspring. Conclusion: In summary, maternal or postnatal HLA diet did not alter the plasma metabolites in the adult rat offspring; however, differences in metabolites between male and female offspring occurred independently of dietary intervention.

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International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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Genetics
Nutrition and dietetics
Analytical biochemistry
Other chemical sciences
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Biochemistry and cell biology
Microbiology
Medicinal and biomolecular chemistry
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Shrestha, N; Melvin, SD; McKeating, DR; Holland, OJ; Cuffe, JSM; Perkins, AV; McAinch, AJ; Hryciw, DH, Sex-specific differences in lysine, 3-hydroxybutyric acid and acetic acid in offspring exposed to maternal and postnatal high linoleic acid diet, independent of diet, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2021, 22 (19), pp. 10223
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