A systematic review of interventions to increase breakfast consumption: A socio-cognitive perspective

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Harris, JA
Carins, JE
Rundle-Thiele, S
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2021
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Abstract

Objective: Regular breakfast skipping is related to unhealthy dietary behaviours, such as consuming an overall poorer quality diet, lower rates of physical activity, both of which are linked to a higher body mass index. Adolescent breakfast-skippers struggle with mental focus, sleep issues and lower grades. Solutions that can be implemented to overcome breakfast skipping are needed. Design: A systematic literature review was undertaken to identify programs that aimed to increase breakfast eating. Following the PRISMA framework studies were sourced to examine details of behaviour change, evidence of theory use and other important program learnings and outcomes. Setting: Breakfast consumption empirical studies published from 2000 onwards. Participants: Nineteen empirical studies that aimed to improve breakfast eating behaviour. Results: Out of the 19 studies examined, ten studies reported an increase in breakfast consumption frequency for the entire study group or subgroups. Seven studies found no change, one was inconclusive, and one observed a decrease in breakfast frequency. Positive changes to the dietary quality of breakfast were observed in five of the studies that did not observe increased frequency of breakfast consumption. Only six studies reported using theory in the intervention. Conclusions: This evidence review points to the need to extend theory application to establish a reliable evidence base that can be followed by practitioners seeking to increase breakfast eating rates in their target population.

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Public Health Nutrition
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© 2021 The Authors. This is the author-manuscript version of this paper. Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. Please refer to the journal's website for access to the definitive, published version.
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Biomedical and clinical sciences
Social marketing
Health sciences
Breakfast eating
Social Cognitive Theory
behaviour change
breakfast skipping
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Harris, JA; Carins, JE; Rundle-Thiele, S, A systematic review of interventions to increase breakfast consumption: A socio-cognitive perspective, Public Health Nutrition, 2021
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