Monitoring quality of care for peripheral intravenous catheters; feasibility and reliability of the peripheral intravenous catheters mini questionnaire (PIVC-miniQ)

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Høvik, LH
Gjeilo, KH
Lydersen, S
Rickard, CM
Røtvold, B
Damås, JK
Solligård, E
Gustad, LT
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BACKGROUND: Peripheral intravenous catheters (PIVCs) account for a mean of 38% of catheter associated bloodstream infections (CABSI) with Staphylococcus aureus, which are preventable if deficiencies in best practice are addressed. There exists no feasible and reliable quality surveillance tool assessing all important areas related to PIVC quality. Thus, we aimed to develop and test feasibility and reliability for an efficient quality assessment tool of overall PIVC quality. METHODS: The Peripheral Intravenous Catheter- mini Questionnaire, PIVC-miniQ, consists of 16 items calculated as a sum score of problems regarding the insertion site, condition of dressing and equipment, documentation, and indication for use. In addition, it contains background variables like PIVC site, size and insertion environment. Two hospitals tested the PIVC-miniQ for feasibility and inter-rater agreement. Each PIVC was assessed twice, 2-5 min apart by two independent raters. We calculated the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for each hospital and overall. For each of the 16 items, we calculated negative agreement, positive agreement, absolute agreement, and Scott's pi. RESULTS: Sixty-three raters evaluated 205 PIVCs in 177 patients, each PIVC was assessed twice by independent raters, in total 410 PIVC observations. ICC between raters was 0.678 for hospital A, 0.577 for hospital B, and 0.604 for the pooled data. Mean time for the bedside assessment of each PIVC was 1.40 (SD 0.0007) minutes. The most frequent insertion site symptom was "pain and tenderness" (14.4%), whereas the most prevalent overall problem was lack of documentation of the PIVC (26.8%). Up to 50% of PIVCs were placed near joints (wrist or antecubital fossae) or were inserted under suboptimal conditions, i.e. emergency department or ambulance. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the need for PIVC quality surveillance on ward and hospital level and reports the PIVC-miniQ to be a reliable and time efficient tool suitable for frequent point-prevalence audits.

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BMC Health Services Research

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© The Author(s). 2019 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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Health services and systems

Public health

Peripheral intravenous catheter

Quality assessment

Quality improvement

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Høvik, LH; Gjeilo, KH; Lydersen, S; Rickard, CM; Røtvold, B; Damås, JK; Solligård, E; Gustad, LT, Monitoring quality of care for peripheral intravenous catheters; feasibility and reliability of the peripheral intravenous catheters mini questionnaire (PIVC-miniQ), BMC Health Services Research, 2019, 19 (1), pp. 636:1-636:10