Postoperative outcomes after bariatric surgery in patients on chronic dialysis: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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Palamuthusingam, D
Singh, A
Palamuthusingam, P
Hawley, CM
Pascoe, EM
Johnson, DW
Fahim, M
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2021
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Abstract

Background: Obesity is a barrier to kidney transplantation for patients with kidney failure. Consequently, bariatric surgery is often considered as a bridge to transplantation, even though its risks and benefits are poorly characterised in the dialysis population. Methods: Systematic searches of observational studies indexed in Embase, MEDLINE and CENTRAL till April 2020 were performed to identify relevant studies. Risk of bias was assessed by the Newcastle Ottawa Scale and quality of evidence was summarised in accordance with GRADE methodology. Random effects meta-analyses were performed to obtain summary odds ratios for postoperative outcomes. Results: Four cohort studies involving 4196 chronic dialysis and 732,204 non-dialysis patients undergoing bariatric surgery were included. Sleeve gastrectomy (61%), and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (29%) were the most common procedures performed. Absolute rates of adverse events were low, but the odds of postoperative mortality (0.4–0.5% vs. 0.1%; odds ratio [OR] 4.7, 95%CI 2.2–9.9), and myocardial infarction (0.0–0.5% vs. 0.1%, OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.0–5.9) were higher in dialysis compared to non-dialysis patients. Patients on dialysis also had more than 2-fold increased odds of returning to theatre and having a readmission. Rates of kidney transplant wait-listing among dialysis patients was 59%, with 28% of all patients eventually receiving a kidney transplant. Conclusion: Patients receiving chronic dialysis have substantially increased odds of postoperative mortality and myocardial infarction following bariatric surgery compared with patient who do not have kidney failure. It is uncertain whether bariatric surgery improves the likelihood of kidney transplantation, with mid- to long-term outcomes being poorly described.

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Obesity Research and Clinical Practice

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Biomedical and clinical sciences

Psychology

Bariatric surgery

End-stage kidney disease

Kidney failure

Kidney transplantation

Perioperative risk

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Palamuthusingam, D; Singh, A; Palamuthusingam, P; Hawley, CM; Pascoe, EM; Johnson, DW; Fahim, M, Postoperative outcomes after bariatric surgery in patients on chronic dialysis: A systematic review and meta-analysis, Obesity Research and Clinical Practice, 2021

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