A Novel Apparatus to Standardise the Polishing Protocol to Achieve Different Roughness of Titanium and Zirconia Disc Surfaces

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Elangovan, Gayathiri
Ipe, Deepak
Reher, Peter
Figueredo, Carlos M
Cameron, Andrew
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PURPOSE: This study aimed to propose and evaluate standardised polishing protocols for in vitro experiment using a custom-made apparatus under controlled force to create consistent surface roughness on titanium and zirconia disks. METHODS: A total of 160 discs were manufactured with a diameter of 10mm, 80 titanium (Ti), and 80 zirconium oxide (Zr). Specimens were categorised into 2 groups: controlled force (CF) and without controlled force (WCF). Specimens in the CF group were polished with a custom apparatus incorporating a tension gauge on the Ti and Zr disc surfaces to achieve consistent roughness. The WCF was polished without the use of a tension gauge. Each group had 4 subgroups (10 disks in each): control/machined (C) with no polishing, rough (R), smooth (S) and very smooth (VS). The subgroups were processed using a sequence of diamond-impregnated polishing burs and polishing paste. RESULTS: CF group showed consistent surface roughness and a gradual decrease in surface roughness. Control (Ra=6.5±0.03µm) in Ti and (Ra=5.4±0.04µm) in Zr; R (Ra=3.5± 0.06µm) in Ti and (Ra=3.2± 0.07 µm) in Zr; S (Ra=1.5±0.04µm) in Ti and (Ra=1.1±006µm) in Zr; VS (Ra=0.05± 0.002µm) in Ti and (Ra=0.02±0.005µm) in Zr. There were significant differences for R, S, and SV under CF and WCF in Ti and Zr surfaces. CONCLUSION: The specimens polished under control force produced significantly more uniform surface roughness than those polished without controlled force and were produced with a higher degree of consistency.

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The International Journal of Prosthodontics
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Elangovan, G; Ipe, D; Reher, P; Figueredo, CM; Cameron, A, A Novel Apparatus to Standardise the Polishing Protocol to Achieve Different Roughness of Titanium and Zirconia Disc Surfaces, The International Journal of Prosthodontics, 2023