Factors associated with arrival by ambulance for patients with stroke: a multicentre, national data linkage study

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Eliakundu, Amminadab L
Cadilhac, Dominique A
Kim, Joosup
Andrew, Nadine E
Bladin, Christopher F
Grimley, Rohan
Dewey, Helen M
Donnan, Geoffrey A
Hill, Kelvin
Levi, Christopher R
Middleton, Sandy
Anderson, Craig S
Lannin, Natasha A
Kilkenny, Monique F
Stroke123 investigators
AuSCR consortium partners
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BACKGROUND: Hospital arrival via ambulance influences treatment of acute stroke. We aimed to determine the factors associated with use of ambulance and access to evidence-based care among patients with stroke. METHODS: Patients with first-ever strokes from the Australian Stroke Clinical Registry (2010-2013) were linked with administrative data (emergency, hospital admissions). Multilevel, multivariable regression models were used to determine patient, clinical and system factors associated with arrival by ambulance. RESULTS: Among the 6,262 patients with first-ever stroke, 4,737 (76%) arrived by ambulance (52% male; 80% ischaemic). Patients who were older, frailer, with comorbidities or were unable to walk on admission (stroke severity) were more likely to arrive by ambulance to hospital. Compared to those using other means of transport, those who used ambulances arrived to hospital sooner after stroke onset (minutes, 124 vs 397) and were more likely to receive reperfusion therapy (adjusted odds ratio, 1.57, 95% CI: 1.09, 2.27). CONCLUSION: Patients with stroke who use ambulances arrived faster and were more likely to receive reperfusion therapy compared to those using personal transport. Further public education about using ambulance services at all times, instead of personal transport when stroke is suspected is needed to optimise access to time critical care.

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Australas Emerg Care

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This publication has been entered in Griffith Research Online as an advanced online version.

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Clinical sciences

Health services and systems

Public health

Acute stroke


Emergency medicine

Health services

Patient factors

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Eliakundu, AL; Cadilhac, DA; Kim, J; Andrew, NE; Bladin, CF; Grimley, R; Dewey, HM; Donnan, GA; Hill, K; Levi, CR; Middleton, S; Anderson, CS; Lannin, NA; Kilkenny, MF; AuSCR consortium partners, Stroke123 investigators, , Factors associated with arrival by ambulance for patients with stroke: a multicentre, national data linkage study., Australas Emerg Care, 2021