Identification of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in selected hospitals of the Gulf Cooperation Council States: dominance of high-risk clones in the region

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Zowawi, Hosam M
Syrmis, Melanie W
Kidd, Timothy J
Balkhy, Hanan H
Walsh, Timothy R
Al Johani, Sameera M
Al Jindan, Reem Y
Alfaresi, Mubarak
Ibrahim, Emad
Al-Jardani, Amina
Al Salman, Jameela
Dashti, Ali A
Sidjabat, Hanna E
Baz, Omar
Trembizki, Ella
Whiley, David M
Paterson, David L
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Purpose. The molecular epidemiology and resistance mechanisms of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) were determined in hospitals in the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), namely, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain and Kuwait.

Methodology. Isolates were screened for common carbapenem-resistance genes by PCR. Relatedness between isolates was assessed using previously described genotyping methods: an informative-single nucleotide polymorphism MassARRAY iPLEX assay (iPLEX20SNP) and the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR assay, with selected isolates being subjected to multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Ninety-five non-repetitive isolates that were found to be resistant to carbapenems were subjected to further investigation.

Results/Key findings. The most prevalent carbapenemase-encoding gene, blaVIM-type, was found in 37/95 (39 %) isolates, while only 1 isolate (from UAE) was found to have blaIMP-type. None of the CRPA were found to have blaNDM-type or blaKPC-type. We found a total of 14 sequence type (ST) clusters, with 4 of these clusters being observed in more than 1 country. Several clusters belonged to the previously recognized internationally disseminated high-risk clones ST357, ST235, ST111, ST233 and ST654. We also found the less predominant ST316, ST308 and ST823 clones, and novel MLST types (ST2010, ST2011, ST2012 and ST2013), in our collection.

Conclusion. Overall our data show that ‘high-risk’ CRPA clones are now detected in the region and highlight the need for strategies to limit further spread of such organisms, including enhanced surveillance, infection control precautions and further promotion of antibiotic stewardship programmes.

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Journal of Medical Microbiology

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© 2018 The Authors. The definitive peer reviewed, edited version of this article is published in Journal of Medical Microbiology, 2018, 67 (6),

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Zowawi, HM; Syrmis, MW; Kidd, TJ; Balkhy, HH; Walsh, TR; Al Johani, SM; Al Jindan, RY; Alfaresi, M; Ibrahim, E; Al-Jardani, A; Al Salman, J; Dashti, AA; Sidjabat, HE; Baz, O; Trembizki, E; Whiley, DM; Paterson, DL, Identification of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in selected hospitals of the Gulf Cooperation Council States: dominance of high-risk clones in the region, Journal of Medical Microbiology, 2018, 67 (6), pp. 846-853