Review: Placental mitochondrial function and structure in gestational disorders

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Holland, Olivia
Nitert, Marloes Dekker
Gallo, Linda A
Vejzovic, Meliha
Fisher, Joshua J
Perkins, Anthony V
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2017
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http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Abstract

The aetiology of many gestational disorders is still unknown. However, insufficient trans-placental nutrient and oxygen transfer due to abnormal placentation is characteristic of several pathologies, and may alter the function of placental mitochondria. Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles that respond to a wide range of stimuli – such as physiological changes in cellular energy demands or various pathologies – by reshaping via fusion or fission, increasing/decreasing in number, altering oxidative phosphorylation, and signalling cellular functions such as apoptosis. Mitochondrial function is integral to tissue functions including energy production, metabolism, and regulation of various cellular responses including response to oxidative stress. This review details the functions of placental mitochondria and investigates mitochondrial function and structure in gestational disorders including preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Placental mitochondrial dysfunction may be critical in a range of gestational disorders which have important implications for maternal and fetal/offspring health.

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Placenta
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© 2016 Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International Licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, providing that the work is properly cited.
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Biochemistry and cell biology
Clinical sciences
Obstetrics and gynaecology
Reproductive medicine
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