The Relationship between Teacher Qualification and the Quality of the Early Childhood Care and Learning Environment: A Systematic Review

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Manning, Matthew
Garvis, Susanne
Fleming, Christopher
Wong, Gabriel
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Not all children are born healthy, provided with adequate health care, have access to good nutrition, or live in acceptable housing conditions. Further, not all children are born free of disabilities, or are raised by parents who can comfort, nurture, and provide opportunities to develop children’s language, literacy, social problem-solving and behaviour management skills (Manning, 2008). Evidence demonstrates that an achievement gap (i.e. educational disparities) exists between racial and socio-economic groups (Editorial Projects in Education Research Center, 2011; Lee & Burkam, 2002; Magnuson & Waldfogel, 2005). Economically disadvantaged students and students of racially marginalized groups (e.g., African-American and Hispanic) in the U.S., for example, are more likely to receive lower grades and scores in standardized tests when compared to Caucasian students (Burchinal et al., 2011; Reardon & Galindo, 2009). Poor quality early childhood care and education can be detrimental to the development of children from all backgrounds, particularly if they fail to equalise some of the disparities and disadvantages that children face in the early developmental stages of their lives. Disparities, for example, may be present in children’s cognitive, physical, and social-emotional development (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research Network, 2005; Peisner-Feinberg et al., 1999). Without access to high-quality services (e.g., health, care and education) that support the child and his/her family in the early years of life, potential negative pathways may lead to poor social, emotional, educational, health, economic and behavioural outcomes (Manning, Homel, & Smith, 2010).

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Campbell Collaboration Library of Systematic Reviews

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© The Author(s) 2017. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported (CC BY 3.0) License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Early Childhood Education (excl. Maori)

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