Validity of the Compassionate Engagement and Action Scales with family carers of older adults: confirmatory factor analyses

Thumbnail Image
File version

Accepted Manuscript (AM)

Murfield, Jenny
Moyle, Wendy
O’Donovan, Analise
Ware, Robert S
Primary Supervisor
Other Supervisors
File type(s)

Objectives: To confirm the factor validity of the Compassionate Engagement and Action Scales (CEAS), as set out in the original development study, when used with a sample of family carers of older adults. Design: A series of confirmatory factor analyses were undertaken to test the previously proposed factor solutions of each scale. Setting: As part of a larger cross-sectional survey, the scales were completed online or via hard copy between July and December 2019. Participants: An international sample of 171 family carers of adults aged 65 years or older. Measurements: The CEAS are three measures that individually assess Compassion for Self, Compassion to Others, and Compassion from Others. All scales measure two aspects, “engagement” and “actions” (two-factor solution), and Compassion for Self also measures two further dimensions within engagement: “sensitivity to suffering” and “engagement with suffering” (three-factor solution). Results: Results were largely consistent with the two-factor solutions proposed for the three orientations of compassion, with acceptable fit and good internal reliability. There was some support for the three-factor solution of Compassion for Self; however, despite model fit comparable to the two-factor solution, internal reliability of the delineated “engagement” dimensions was low, and there was a weak factor loading for item 5 that measured distress tolerance. Conclusions: Use of the CEAS with family carers of older adults is promising. Further research is recommended with larger samples and to explore distress tolerance as a competency within conceptualization and measurement of compassion.

Journal Title

International Psychogeriatrics

Conference Title
Book Title
Thesis Type
Degree Program
Publisher link
Patent number
Grant identifier(s)
Rights Statement
Rights Statement

© 2020 International Psychogeriatric Association. This is the author-manuscript version of this paper. Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. Please refer to the journal's website for access to the definitive, published version.

Item Access Status

This publication has been entered in Griffith Research Online as an advanced online version.

Access the data
Related item(s)

Biomedical and clinical sciences


Applied and developmental psychology

Persistent link to this record

Murfield, J; Moyle, W; O’Donovan, A; Ware, RS, Validity of the Compassionate Engagement and Action Scales with family carers of older adults: confirmatory factor analyses, International Psychogeriatrics